Reorganization of Pakistan’s Science and Technology Enterprise

M. N. Khan

Abstract


Ability of any modern society to develop and fully exploit advancements in Science and Technology
(S&T) is critical to its long-term prosperity. While public investments in S&T throughout the developing
world are abysmally low, what is more disturbing is the ineffective use of scarce resources. In the
absence of a clear understanding of how investments in S&T enterprise improve the quality of life of
citizens and enhance their security. It is not surprising that developing countries struggle to formulate
and implement knowledge-driven, cost-effective, climate resilient development strategies. Changes in
climate, natural disasters and increasing levels of environmental pollution are likely to aggravate the
governance challenge in developing countries. This paper outlines key pillars of a reorganization
strategy that aims to reenergize Pakistan’s S&T enterprise with the objective of tackling the complex
array of societal challenges that changes in environment are likely to exacerbate. While S&T enterprise
encompasses public and private sector institutions of higher education, research and development, the
focus of this research paper is on the Ministry of Science and Technology – the federal government entity
responsible for planning and management of scientific research and technology development in
Pakistan. After briefly describing the history and evolution of the United States (US) S&T enterprise, the
social and geopolitical context in which Pakistan has planned its past investments in science, technology
and higher education is examined. The author argues, that environmental change and degradation poses
a serious risk to the economic wellbeing of a state and its people. Any effective strategy aimed at
mitigating and managing the adverse impacts must have it at its core the goal of building and sustaining
both public and private sector institutions capable of seeking and fully exploiting relevant scientific
knowledge and technology in pursuit of their respective mission.


Full Text:

PDF

References


M. Mazzucato, “The Entrepreneurial State: Debunking Public vs. Private Sector Myths”, Anthem Press, 2017.

“Report to the President: Transformation and Opportunity: The Future of the U.S. Research Enterprise, Washington, DC”, President Council on Science and Technology (PCAST), 2016.

R.M. Solow, “Growth Theory: An Exposition”, (Second edition), Oxford University Press, 2010.

P. Romer, “Endogenous Technological Change”, J. Polit. Econ., vol. 98, no. 5, Part 2 (1990) S71-S102.

C. Perez, “Technological Revolutions and Financial Capital”, Elgar Publishing, Inc., 2002.

R.D. Atkinson, “The Past and Future of America's Economy: Long Waves of Innovation That Power Cycles of Growth”, Edward Elgar Pub., 2005.

D. Sarewitz, “Advancing the Science of Science and Innovation Policy”, Testimony before the U.S. House of Representatives Committee on Science and Technology, CSPO Report # 10-04, Available: http://docs.politicascti.net/documents/Teoricos/ Sarewitz_ et_al.pdf, Access: [28 June 2018].

S. Hallegatte, M. Bangalore, L. Bonzanigo, M. Fay, T. Kane, U. Narloch, J. Rozenberg, D. Treguer, A. Vogt-Schilb, “Shock Waves: Managing the Impacts of Climate Change on Poverty. Climate Change and Development”, World Bank, Washington, DC, 2016.

World Bank, “Natural hazards, unnatural disasters: the economics of effective prevention”, Washington, DC, 2010.

R.D. Hollander, F.F. Benya and C. H. Fletcher, “The Climate Change Educational Partnership: Climate Change, Engineered Systems, and Society: A Report of Three Workshops”, National Academy of Engineering. The National Academies Press. Washington, DC, 2014.

M.M. Waldrop, “Complexity: The emerging science at the edge of order and Chaos, (1st Edition), Simon & Schuster Paperbacks, 1992.

U. Bien and M. Arena, “Complexity leadership: Enabling people and organizations for adaptability, Organizational Dynamics”, vol. 49, 2017

Library of Congress, Primary Documents in American History, Morill Actk, Available: https://www.loc.gov/rr/program/bib/ourdocs/ Morrill. html, Acess: [28 June 2018].

National Academy of Sciences (US) Committee on Criteria for Federal Support of Research and Development, “Allocating Federal Funds for Science and Technology”, Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US); 1995. Supplement 1: The evolution and impact of Federal

M.N. Khan / The Nucleus 56, No. 1 (2019) 19-28

Government Support for R&D in broad outline, Available: https:// www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK45556/, Access: [28 June 2018].

G. Hartcup, “The effect of science on the second world war”, St. Martin’s Press, Inc. Scholarly and Reference Division, 2000.

“The Scientific War Work of Linus C. Pauling, Correspondence, Copy of a letter from Franklin D. Roosevelt to Vannevar Bush”, November 17, 1944, Available: http://scarc.library.oregonstate.edu/coll/pauling/ war/corr/sci13.006.4-roosevelt-bush-19441117-transcript.html, Access: [28 June 2018].

V. Bush, “Science the endless frontier”, United States Government Printing Office, July 1945, Washington, DC. Available: https:// www.nsf.gov/od/lpa/nsf50/vbush1945.htm, Access: [28 June 2018].

National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resources Statistics, “National patterns of R&D resources: 2011-12 data update”, NSF 14-304, Arlington, VA, 2013.

National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), “A brief history of NASA”, Available: https://history. nasa.gov/ factsheet.htm, Access: [28 June 2018].

A. Jacobson, “The Pentagon's Brain: An uncensored history of DARPA”, America's Top-Secret Military Research Agency, Back Bay Books, 2015.

National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), “NASA historical data book, vol. 1 (1958-1968), NASA Resources, NASA SP-4012, Washington, DC,.

American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), “Historical trends in federal R&D”, Available: https://www. aaas.org/ page/historical-trends-federal-rd, Access: [28 June 2018].

National Science Foundation, “Cyberinfrastructure: A brief history of NSF and the internet”, 2018, Available: https://www.nsf. gov/news/ special_reports/cyber/internet.jsp, Access: [28 June 2018].

IDC, “Worldwide semiannual IT spending guide: Industry and company size”, 2017.

R. Dallek, “Power and Presidency from Kennedy to Obama”, Smithsonian Magazine, 2011.

D. Sarewitz, “Saving science, The new Atlantist”, Spring/Summer, p. 5-40, 2016.

W. Dalrymple, “The Great Divide: The violent legacy of Indian Partition”, New Yorker, June 29, 2015.

G. Fraser, “Cosmic Anger: Abdus Salam - The First Muslim Nobel Scientist”, Oxford University Press, 2012.

A. Salam, “Guage unification of fundamental forces”, Nobel lecture, 8 December 1979.

F. Khan, “Eating grass: The Making of the Pakistani Bomb”, (1st Edition), Stanford Security Studies, 2012.

T. Mehmood, “Pressler Amendment and Pakistan's Security Concerns”, vol. 47, No. 4, pp. 97-107, 1994.

A. Osama, S.Z. Hassan, K.A. Chattah, “Pakistan Innovation and Science Review 2015”, Pakistan Innovation Foundation, Islamabad, Pakistan, 2015.

Higher Education Commission, “Draft Higher Education Vision 2025: Seize the day for a better future”, Table 2, p. 20, 2017.

Higher Education Commission, “Draft Higher Education Vision 2025: Seize the day for a better future”, Table 10, p. 58, 2017.

Higher Education Commission, “Annual Report 2012-2013”, Higher Education Commission, Islamabad, Pakistan, 2013.

A.U. Rehman and A. Nasim, “Time for Enlightened Moderation”, Nature, vol. 432 (2004) 273-274.

United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), Institute for Statistics, Available: http://data. uis.unesco. org/, Access: [28 June 2018].

Government of Pakistan, “Rules of Business, Cabinet Division, Cabinet Secretariat”, Islamabad, Pakistan, 1973.

Government of Pakistan, “Pakistan Economic Survey 2017-18”, Ministry of Finance, Islamabad, Pakistan, 2018.

World Health Organization, “Global Health Observatory: Country statistics and global health estimates by WHO and UN partners”, Geneva, Switzerland, 2015.

International Energy Agency, “World Energy Outlook, 2016”, Paris, France, 2016.

“WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Program for Water Supply, Sanitation and Hygiene”, New York, United States, 2017.

National Institute of Population Studies, Pakistan and ICF International, “Pakistan Demographic Survey 2012-13”, 2013.

V. Zakria, “Water and environment sustainability”, Background Paper #3. In: Pakistan's Water Economy: Running Dry. Washington, DC, World Bank, 2000.

I. Husain, “Governing the ungovernable: Institutional reform for democratic governance”, Oxford University Press, Karachi, Pakistan, 2018.

United Nations Human Development Program (UNDP), “Human Development Indices and Indicators: 2018 Statistical Update”, 2018.

S. Kreft, D. Eckstein, L. Dorsch and L. Fischer, “Global climate risk index 2016”, German Watch, 2016.

Asian Development Bank and World Bank, “Pakistan 2005 earthquake: Preliminary damage and needs assessment”, 2005.

Asian Development Bank and World Bank, “Pakistan floods 2010: Preliminary damage and needs assessment”, 2010.

K.L. Rasmussen and R.A. Houze, Jr., “A flash flooding storm at the steep edge of high terrain: Disaster in the himalayas” Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 93, p. 1713-1724, 2012.

Agence France-Presse, “IMF holds talks with Pakistan over aid package”, Available: http://goo.gl/XfgW, Access: [28 June 2018].

L.L. Colburn, P. M. Clay, T. Seara, C. Weng and A. Silva, “Social and economic impacts of hurricane/post tropical cyclone sandy on the commercial and recreational fishing industries: New York and New Jersey One Year Later”, U.S. Department of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS-F/SPO-157, 2015.

New York Times, “Climate change, deforestation and corruption combine to drown a region”, Available: http://www.nytimes.com/ cwire/2010/10/13/13climatewire-climate-change-deforestation-and-corruption-90465.html?pagewanted=all, Access: [28 June 2018].

World Bank, “Pakistan strategic country environmental assessment”, Report No. 36946-PK, Washington, DC, 2006.

World Bank Group: “Global facility for disaster reduction and recovery, fiscal disaster risk assessment options for consideration: Pakistan”, Washington, DC, 2015.

M. Segone, “Enhancing evidence-based policy making through country-led monitoring and evaluation systems: Better evidence, better policies, better development results”, UNICEF Evaluation Papers, 2009.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.