Analysis of Temperature Distribution and Phase Change Time inside Iron-Nickel Foam Infiltrated with Paraffin

A. Hussain, M. Mehboob, W. Ahmed, M. Ali, H. Shahid


Thermal performance of phase change materials (PCMs) has a great importance in efficient thermal energy storage systems (TESS). Pure PCMs have high heat absorption capacity and latent heat. In this study temperature distribution inside the pure paraffin, pure iron-nickel foam, and Iron-nickel foam/paraffin PCM composite was experimentally compared. Heat flux of 1000 W/m2 was supplied through a flexible heater (100 mm × 100 mm × 1.3 mm) at the bottom of the paraffin, pure iron-nickel foam, and iron-nickel foam/paraffin wax composite. Phase change time of paraffin and iron-nickel foam/paraffin wax composite was also investigated. Experimental results show that temperature difference was lowered by 50% in case of new Iron-Nickel foam/paraffin PCM composite due to high [2.08 W/ m. K] effective thermal conductivity. During the thermal storage process of pure paraffin, maximum temperature difference along the z-axis was more (14%) as compared to that along the x-axis. The temperature difference was found to be 4 oC in the case of paraffin while in pure iron-nickel foam it was 2 oC during the heating process. Phase transition time of pure paraffin was increased by 16.67% as compared to composite PCM during the thermal storage process.

Full Text:



B. Zalba, J. M. Marin, L. F. Cabeza and H. Mehling, "Review on thermal energy storage with phase change: materials, heat transfer analysis and applications", Applied Thermal Engineering, 23(3), p. 251-283, 2003.

X. Py, R. Olives and S. Mauran, "Paraffin/porous-graphite-matrix composite as a high and constant power thermal storage material", International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 44(14), p. 2727-2737, 2001.

Z. Zhang, J. Cheng and X. He, "Numerical simulation of flow and heat transfer in composite PCM on the basis of two different models of open-cell metal foam skeletons", International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 112, p. 959-971, 2017.

P. Royo, L. Acevedo, V. J. Ferreira, T. G. Armingol, A. M. Sabiron and G. Ferreira, "High-temperature PCM-based thermal energy storage for industrial furnaces installed in energy-intensive industries", Energy, 173, p. 1030-1040, 2019.

D. Zhou and C. Y. Zhao, "Experimental investigations on heat transfer in phase change materials (PCMs) embedded in porous materials", Applied Thermal Engineering, 31, p. 970-977, 2011.

Li, W.Q., et al., “Experimental study of a passive thermal management system for high-powered lithium ion batteries using porous metal foam saturated with phase change materials.”, Journal of Power Sources, 255: p. 9-15, 2014..

Z. Rao and S. Wang, "A review of power battery thermal energy management", Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 15(9), p. 4554-4571, 2011.

W.Q. Li, Z. G. Qu, Y.L. He and W.Q. Tao, "Experimental and numerical studies on melting phase change heat transfer in open-cell metallic foams filled with paraffin", Applied Thermal Engineering, 37, p. 1–9, 2012.

H. Zheng, C. Wanga, Q. Liu, Z. Tian and X. Fan, "Thermal performance of copper foam/paraffin composite phase change material", Energy Conversion and Management, 157, p. 372-381, 2018.

X. Xiao, P. Zhang and M. Li, "Preparation, and thermal characterization of paraffin/metal foam composite phase change material", Applied Energy, 112, p. 1357-1366, 2013.

T. X. Li, D. L. Wu, F. He and R. Z. Wang, "Experimental investigation on copper foam/hydrated salt composite phase change material for thermal energy storage", International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 115, p. 148-157, 2017.

T. Rehman, H. M. Ali, A. Saieed, W. Pao and M. Ali, "Copper foam/PCMs based heat sinks: An experimental study for electronic cooling systems", International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 127, p. 381-393, 2018.

A. Hussain, C.Y. Tso and C.Y.H. Chao, "Experimental investigation of a passive thermal management system for high-powered lithium-ion batteries using nickel foam-paraffin composite", Energy, 115, p. 209-218, 2016.

M. M. Heyhat, S. Mousavi and M. Siavashi, “Battery thermal management with thermal energy storage composites of PCM , metal foam , fin and nanoparticle”, Journal of Energy Storage, 28, p. 101235, 2020.

R. Baby and C. Balaji, "Experimental investigations on thermal performance enhancement and effect of orientation on porous matrix filled PCM based heat sink", International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer, 46, p. 27-30, 2013.

A. Hussain, I. H. Abidi, C. Y. Tso, K. C. Chan, Z. Luo and C. Y. H. Chao, “Thermal management of lithium ion batteries using graphene coated nickel foam saturated with phase change materials”, International Journal of Thermal Sciences, 124, pp. 23–35, 2018,

J. Meinert, “Cellular Metals and Composites for an Optimisation of the Loading and Re-Loading Behaviour of Thermal Storages”, 4th International Renewable Energy Storage Conference. (IRES 2009), Dresden Branch Lab 2009, available: ,2009.


  • There are currently no refbacks.