Formal Analysis of Improved and Secure Architecture of E-voting System using Hierarchical Coloured Petri Nets


  • Z. Ahmad Punjab Higher Education Department
  • F. Ahmad COMSATS University Islamabad
  • Z. A Gondal COMSATS University Islamabad


Casting a vote is the fundamental right of any citizen. Pakistan follows the traditional manual voting
system and there are number of factors influencing in such a way that put a question as if the vote has
been casted correctly and should be considered towards final count. Manual counting process of vote do
not provide the security measures minimizing the attempts of frauds like increase or decrease in the vote
count. Therefore, the idea of secure and improved E-voting system is proposed to overcome such flaws
in current voting system in Pakistan. In this manuscript, an improved component-based architecture,
security features and future recommendations are presented. Different techniques linked with voter’s
authentication, confidentiality and integrity are suggested to minimize the flaws and maximize the
benefits of voting system. Further, the proposed architecture is formally modelled through ‘coloured
Petri nets’ to validate it. Formal analysis is also performed based on the state space generated to
simulate the hierarchical coloured Petri net based formal model of proposed E-voting system.

Author Biography

F. Ahmad, COMSATS University Islamabad

Associate Professor, Computer Science Department


M. Volkamer and M. McGaley, “Requirements and evaluation procedures for eVotingâ€, The Second International Conference on Availability, Reliability and Security, pp. 895-902, 2007.

N. Paul and A.S. Tanenbaum, “The design of a trustworthy voting systemâ€, Annual Computer Security Applications Conference, pp. 507-517, 2009.

A. Al-ameen and S.A. Talab, “E-voting systems vulnerabilitiesâ€, IEEE 8th International Conference on Information Science and Digital Content Technology, vol. 1, pp. 67-73, 2012.

R. Cooke and R. Anane, “A service-oriented architecture for robust e-voting,†Serv. Oriented Comput. Appl., vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 249-266, 2012.

H. Pan, E. Hou and N. Ansari, “E-NOTE: An e-voting system that ensures voter confidentiality and voting accuracyâ€, IEEE International Conference on Communications, pp. 825-829, 2012.

K.M. Abosamra, A.A. Abdelhafez, G.M.R. Assassa and M.F.M. Mursi, “A practical, secure and auditable e-voting system", J. Inf. Secur. Appl., vol. 36, pp. 69-89, 2017.

K. Jensen and L.M. Kristensen, "Coloured Petri nets : Modelling and validation of concurrent systems", Springer Science & Business Media, 2009.

F. Ahmad, A. Sadiq, A.M. Martinez-Enriquez, A. Muhammad, M.W. Anwar, U. Bajwa, M. Naseer and S.A. Khan, “Component based architecture for the control of crossing regions in railway networksâ€, 16th IEEE International Conference on Machine Learning and Applications, pp. 540-545, 2017.

H.D. Tho and N.T.H. Ha, “A protocol for securing e-voting systemâ€, International Conference on Advanced Engineering Theory and Applications, Springer, Cham, pp. 38-48, 2017.

P. Realpe-Muñoz, C.A. Collazos, J. Hurtado, T. Granollers, J. Muñoz-Arteaga, and J. Velasco-Medina, “Eye tracking-based behavioural study of users using e-voting systems,†Comput. Stand. Interfaces, vol. 55, pp. 182–195, Jan. 2018.

Y. Zhou, H. Gao and J. Cheng, “An extension of QSL for E-voting systemsâ€, Advances in Computer Science and Ubiquitous Computing, Singapore: Springer, pp. 87-96, 2016.

A. Chowdhury, “Revolution in authentication process by using biometricsâ€, IEEE International Conference on Recent Trends in Information Systems, pp. 36-41, 2011.

Z. Ahmed et al. / The Nucleus 56, No. 4 (2019) 137-142

A. Sarajlic, N. Behlilovi and I. Sokolovi, “A modular concept of E-voting system that protects user privacy using random password distributionâ€, 18th IEEE International Conference on Systems, Signals and Image Processing, pp. 1-5, 2011.

N. Kshetri and J. Voas, “Blockchain-enabled e-votingâ€, IEEE Softw., vol. 35, no. 4, pp. 95-99, 2018.

M. Pawlak, A. Poniszewska-MaraÅ„da and N. Kryvinska, “Towards the intelligent agents for blockchain e-voting systemâ€, Procedia Comput. Sci., vol. 141, pp. 239-246, 2018.

J.-H. Hsiao, R. Tso, C.-M. Chen, and M.-E. Wu, “Decentralized E-voting systems based on the blockchain technologyâ€, Advances in Computer Science and Ubiquitous Computing, Singapore: Springer, pp. 305-309, 2018.

L. Jing, X. Wang, Z. Huang, L. Wang and Y. Xiang, "Multi-level multi-secret sharing scheme for decentralized e-voting in cloud computing", J. Parallel Distr. Com., vol. 130, pp. 91-97, 2019.

K.M. Khan, J. Arshad and M. M. Khan, "Simulation of transaction malleability attack for blockchain-based e-voting", Comput. Electr. Eng., vol. 83, p. 106583, 2020.

H.C. Chen and R. Deviani, “A secure e-voting system based on RSA time-lock puzzle mechanismâ€, IEEE Seventh International Conference on Broadband, Wireless Computing, Communication and Applications, pp. 596-601, 2012.

S. Djanali, B.A. Pratomo, K.P.N. Cipto, A. Koesriputranto and H. Studiawan, “Design and development of voting data security for electronic voting (E-Voting)â€, 4th International Conference on Information and Communication Technology, pp. 1-4, 2016.




How to Cite

Z. Ahmad, F. Ahmad, and Z. A. Gondal, “Formal Analysis of Improved and Secure Architecture of E-voting System using Hierarchical Coloured Petri Nets”, The Nucleus, vol. 56, no. 4, pp. 137–143, Jun. 2020.