Elemental Composition of Local Pakistani Building Materials Using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA)


  • A. Yaqub Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology (PINSTECH), P.O Nilore, Islamabad 45650, Pakistan
  • M. Kashif Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology (PINSTECH), P.O Nilore, Islamabad 45650, Pakistan
  • N. Siddique Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology (PINSTECH), P.O Nilore, Islamabad 45650, Pakistan


In the present study, elemental composition of local Pakistani building materials (marble, granite, stones and pottery) were determined using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) technique. On the average, maximum numbers of elements were quantified in marble samples followed by stone and pottery samples. The elemental data was subjected to principal component analysis (PCA) which showed that all marble samples have similar composition. Similarly stones also share the same chemical content and the pottery samples resemble each other. Therefore PCA can be successfully used to differentiate different types of building material samples from their elemental data.


U. Cevik, N. Damla, R. V. Grieken and V.M. Akpınar, “Chemical composition of building materials used in Turkeyâ€, Constr. Build. Mater., vol. 25, pp. 1546-1552, 2011.

A.E. Taher, “Rare earth elements content in geological samples from Gabal Gattar Eastern Desert-Egypt determined by INAAâ€, J. Appl. Radiat. Isot., vol. 68, pp. 1859–1863, 2010.

A.J. Finlay, J.M McComish, C.J. Ottley, C.R. Bates, and D. Selby, “Trace element fingerprinting of ceramic building material from Carpow and York Roman fortresses manufactured by the VI Legionâ€, J. Arch. Sci., vol. 39, pp. 2385-2391, 2012.

R.A., Obasi, O.L. Anike, and P. Ogungbuyi, “Trace and rare earth elements geochemistry of marble from Ikpeshi, Its provenance and paleo-redox conditionsâ€, IJST., vol. 4, pp. 14-25, 2015.

A.T. Hailu, A.K. Chaubey, D.A. Mamo and A.Y. Hibstie, “Application of instrumental neutron activation analysis for the elemental analysis of various rocks from areas around Debre Birhan City, Ethiopiaâ€, IJRRAS, vol. 12, pp. 115-125, 2012.

L. Hamidatou, H. Slamene, T Akhal, and B. Zouranen, “Imaging and Radioanalytical Techniques in Interdisciplinary Research Fundamentals and Cutting Edge Applicationsâ€, F. Kharfi (Ed.), Tech Open, London, UK, 2013.

M.E. Ouahabi, L. Daoudi, F.D. Vleeschouwer, R. Bindler, and N. Fagel, “Potentiality of clay raw materials from Northern Morocco in ceramic industry: Tetouan and Meknes Areasâ€, J. Min. Mat. Charac. Eng.,vol. 2, pp. 145-159, 2014.

S. Javied, S. Waheed, N. Siddique, M. Tufail, M.M. Chaudhry, and N. Irfan, “Elemental analysis of phosphate rocks: For sustainable agriculture in Pakistanâ€, J. Radioanal. Nucl. Chem., vol. 278, pp.17–24, 2008.

S. Waheed, A. Rahman, N .Siddique and S. Ahmad, “Rare Earth and Other Trace Element Content of NRCC HISS-1 Sandy Marine Sediment Reference Materialâ€, Geostand. Geoanalytical Res., vol. 31, pp.133 –141, 2007.

Y. Faiz, N. Siddique, and M. Tufail, “Pollution level and health risk assessment of road dust from an expresswayâ€, J. Environ. Sci. Health A., vol. 47, pp.818–829, 2012.

R. Dybczynski and O. Suschny, Final Report on the Intercomparison Run SL-1, IAEA Lab., Seiberdorf, IAEA/RL/64.

L.D. Mee and B. Oregioni, “Report on the worldwide intercomparison of trace elements measurements in marine sediments SD-M-2/TM. IAEA/AL/053†UNEP, 1991

S. Bhattaraia and N.K. Tamrakar, “Physical Properties, Strength and Durability of Selected Rocks from the Central Nepal Lesser Himalaya, Malekhu River Area for Building Stonesâ€, Am. Sci. Res. J. Eng. Technol. Sci., vol. 35, pp. 236-250, 2017.

S. Waheed, N. Siddique, and Y. Faiz, “Rare Earth and High Field-Strength Elements in the Multani Mitti Clay: A Study Using INAAâ€, Geo. Std. Geo. Anal. Res., vol. 37, pp.197-205, 2012.

D.Z. Piper and M. Bau, “Normalized Rare Earth Elements in Water, Sediments, and Wine: Identifying Sources and Environmental Redox Conditionsâ€, Am. J. Anal. Chem., vol. 4, pp. 69-83, 2013.

S. Dökmen, H. Atasoy, Y. Özbir, and G. Tarcan, “Multielement analysis of Turkish marble samples by means of FNAA and TNAAâ€. Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., vol. B56/57, pp. 915–916, 1991.

A.E. Taher, A.A., Ibraheem, S. Abdelkawy, “Elemental analysis of marble used in Saudi Arabia by different nuclear analytical techniquesâ€, Appl. Radiat. Isot., vol. 73, pp.17–20. 2013.

O.G. Duliua, L.C. Dinescub and D. Skliros, “INAA study of the distribution of some major and trace elements in Greek limestones and marbles†J. Trace Microprobe Tech., vol.17, pp. 165-175, 1999.

A.E. Taher and M.A.K. Abdelhalim, “Elemental analysis of limestone by instrumental neutron activation analysisâ€, J. Radioanal. Nucl. Chem., vol. 299,pp. 1949–1953, 2014.

H.M. Mahmoud, A.G.E. Abbady, M.A. Khairy, A.S. Abdehalim and A.E. Taher, “Multi-element determination in sandstone rock by instrumental neutron activation analysisâ€, J Radioanal. Nucl. Chem., vol. 264, pp. 715-718, 2005.

W.R. Alharbi and A.E. Taher, “Elemental Analysis and Natural Radioactivity Levels of Clay by Gamma Ray Spectrometer and Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysisâ€, Sci. Technol. Nucl. Ins., vol. 2016, pp. 1-5, 2013.

R.A. Armitage, L. Minc, D.V. Hill, and S.D. Hurry, “Characterization of bricks and tiles from the 17th century brick chapel, St. Mary’s City, Marylandâ€, J. Archaeol. Sci., vol. 33, pp. 615-627, 2006.

C.W. Liu, K.H. Lin and Y.M. Kuo, “Application of factor analysis in the assessment of groundwater quality in a blackfoot disease area in Taiwanâ€, The Sci. Total Environ., vol. 313, pp.77–89, 2003.

A. Moropoulou and K. Polikreti, “Principal Component Analysis in monument conservation: Three application examplesâ€, J. Cult. Herit., vol. 10, pp. 73-81, 2009.

B.M., Webb-Robertson, H.K. Wiberg, M.M. Matzke, J.N. Brown, J. Wang, J.E. McDeott, R.D. Smith, K.D. Rodland, T.O. Metz, J.G. Pounds and K.M Waters, “Review, Evaluation, and Discussion of the Challenges of Missing Value Imputation for Mass Spectrometry-Based Label-Free Global Proteomicsâ€, Proteome Res., vol. 14, pp. 1993–2001, 2015.

A. Shakhashiro, A. Trinkl, A. Toervenyi, E. Zeiller, T. Benesch and U. Sansone, “Report on the IAEA-CU-2006-06 proficiency test on the determination of major, minor and trace elements in ancient Chinese ceramic (IAEA/AL--168)â€, International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), 2006.




How to Cite

A. Yaqub, M. Kashif, and N. Siddique, “Elemental Composition of Local Pakistani Building Materials Using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA)”, The Nucleus, vol. 56, no. 4, pp. 153–162, Sep. 2020.




Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 > >>