BIODIESEL PRODUCTION FROM CORN OIL BY TRANSESTERIFICATION PROCESS
AbstractThere is much political demand and economic pressure to convert agricultural surpluses into material, such as motor fuel, in which the world is deficient. Transport industry is primary consumer of crude oil. Due to scarcity of known petroleum reserves, the possible alternative fuel for use in present engine technology is biofuels. Europe, USA and Brazil are successfully using biofuels. Biofuels causes less environmental pollution as compared to normal petro fuels. As a fuel, ethanol (gasohol) is used in internal combustion engine while methyester (Biodiesel) is used in diesel engines with same or better performance as compared to petro fuels. Corn is very valuable crop with numerous industrial applications, and is used in more than 300 modern industries, including the manufacture of textiles, paper, adhesives, insecticides, paints, soaps, explosives and many more. Presently the biggest source of ethanol production is from corn (produced by USA). Edible oil can also be extracted from corn which is normally used for cooking and it can be used for biodiesel production. Many countries are experimenting on fats and oil to get feasible data for production of biodiesel. Presently USA prefer to use soybean oil as raw material for commercial production of biodiesel while in Europe rapeseed oil is preferred, so therefore, it depends upon the availability of raw material in particular area and may change from location to location. In Pakistan we started with corn oil to produce biodiesel by transesterification method. In present study different design parameters such as effect of temperature, catalyst concentration, molar ratio, and Stirrer speed were founded for better conversion of neat and used corn oil into biodiesel. The optimum parameters proposed for neat corn oil are 0.5% of catalyst based on weight of corn oil, temperature between 50o o C to 60 C, reaction time 15 minutes, molar ratio of 6:1 and speed of stirrer 155 rpm. In case of used corn oil high catalyst amount was used which was 0.7% based on the weight of oil. Fuel testing results of corn biodiesel was comparable with normal petro diesel fuel.
International energy outlook, Chapter 3,
Petroleum and other Liquid Fuels.
Energy Information Administration (EIA),
international energy (2004).
Energy Information Administration (EIA),
International Energy 2006, World Bank
Ministry of Petroleum and Natural
Association for the Study of Peak Oil,
S. Sinha and N.C. Misra, Chem. Eng. World
(1997) 77. R. Diesel, The Diesel Oil Engine,
Engineering, 93 (1912) 395; Chem. Abstr. 6
(1984) 1912. Y. He, and Y.D. Bao, Renewable Energy 28
(2003) 1447. R. Diesel, â€œThe Diesel Oil-Engine and Its
Industrial Importance Particularly for Great
Britainâ€, Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. (1912) pp.
â€“280; Chem. Abstr. 7 (1605) 1913.
P.B. Weisz, W.O. Haag and P.G. Rodewald,
Science 206 (1979) 57.
F.A. Zaher and A.R. Taman, Energy Sources
Anonymous, Chem. Metall. Eng. 50 (1943) 15 (1993) 499.
M.J. Rosen, in Surfactants and Interfacial
Phenomena, 2nd edn., Wiley and Sons,
NewYork, pp. 322â€“324,1989.
C.C. Chang and S.-W. Wan, Ind. Eng. Chem.
(1947) 1543 ; Chem. Abstr. 42 (1948)
C.E. Goering in Effect of Non petroleum
Fuels on Durability of Direct-Injection Diesel
Engines (Contract 59-2171-1-6-057-0),
U.S.D.A., Peoria, IL, 1984.
F.W. Cheng, Chem. Metall. Eng. 52 (1945)
R. Wang, R., Taiyangneng Xuebao 9 (1988)
â€“436; Chem. Abstr. 111 (1989) 26233. B. Freedman and E.H. Pryde, â€œFatty Esters
from Vegetable Oils for Use as a Diesel
Fuelâ€, in Vegetable Oil Fuels, Proceedings of
the International Conference on Plant and
Vegetable Oils as Fuels, Fargo, ND, ASAE
Publication 4-82, pp. 117â€“122,1982.
J. Jalbert, Carburants Nat. 3 (1942) 49;
Chem. Abstr. 37 (1943) 61071.
Charles, Chim. Ind. (Special Number) (1923)
â€“774; Chem. Abstr. 17 (1923).
Anonymous, Annual Book of ASTM
Standards, Vol. 05.01, ASTM International,
West Conshohocken, PA, D975, 2003.
B. Freedman, E.H. Pryde and T.L. Mounts,
J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 61 (1984) 1638.
M. Canakci and J. Van Gerpen, Trans. ASAE
S.R. Westbrook, in Significance of Tests for 42 (1999) 1203.
Petroleum Products, 7th edn., edited by
S.J.Rand, ASTM International, West
Conshohocken, PA, pp. 63â€“81 (2003).
H. Noureddini and D. Zhu, J. Am. Oil Chem.
Soc. 74 (1997) 1457.
D.G.B. Boocock, S.K. Konar, V. Mao and
H. Sidi, Biomass Bioenergy 11 (1996) 43. C.E. Goering, M.D. Schrock, K.R. Kaufman,
M.A. Hanna, F.D. Harris, and S.J. Marley,
â€œEvaluation of Vegetable Oil Fuels in
Enginesâ€, Proceedings of the International
Winter Meeting of the ASAE, Paper No. 87-
Y. Warabi, D. Kusdiana and S. Saka,
Bioresour. Technol. 91 (2004) 283.
Ministry of Food and Agriculture, Pakistan.
Syed jamil Ahmed Rizvi, The Dawn
(Newspaper), 15 October 2001 A.W. Schwab, M.O. Bagby and B.
Freedman, Fuel 66 (1987).
USDA, industry statistics. M.H. Goettler and G.L. Pratt, Comparative
Analysis of the Long-Term Performance of a
Diesel Engine on Vegetable Oil Based
Alternate Fuels, in SAE Technical Paper
Series, No. 860301, 1986.
Ethanol fuel in Brazil, free encyclopedia.
J.V. Gerpan, Fuel Process Technol 86
(2006) 1097. C.R. Engler and L.A. Johnson, J. Am. Oil
Chem.Soc. 60 (1983) 1592. M.J Nye, T.W Williamson, S. Deshpande,
J.H. Schrader, W.H. Snively and T.P.
Yurkewich J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 71 (1323)
A.V. Tomasevic and S.S. Siler-Marinkovic,
Fuel Process Technol. 81 (2003) 1.
Y. Zhang, M.A. Dube, D.D. Mclean and M.
Kates, Bioresource Technol. 90 (2003) 229.
B. Freedman, EH. Pryde and T.L. Mounts, J.
Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 61 (1984) 1638.
D.G.B Boocock, S.K. Konar, V. Ma and H.
Sidi, Biomass Bioenergy 11 (1996) 43.
LC. Meher, SS Vidya and SNN. Dharmagadda, Bioresource Technol. 97 (2006)
N. Usta, Biomass Bioenergy 28 (2005) 77.
F. Karaosmanoglu, A. Akdag and K.B.
Cigizoglu, Appl. Biochem. Biotech. 61 (1996)
J.M. Encinar, J.F. Gonzalez, E. Sabio and
M.J. Ramiro, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 38 (1999)
A. Srivastava and R. Prasad, Renewable
Sustainable Energy Rev. 4 (2000) 111.
F .Ma and M.A. Hanna, Biores Technol. 70
C.L. Peterson and T. Hustruid, Biomass
Bioenergy 14 (1998) 91 Summary plus.