GROWTH OF OPTICAL GRADE GERMANIUM CRYSTALS

M. Waris, S. M. J. Akhtar, N. Mehmood, M. Ashraf, M. Siddique

Abstract


A novel design of Czochralski( CZ ) growth station in a low frequency induction furnace is described and growth of optical grade Ge crystal as a test material is performed achieving a flat solid –liquid interface shape. Grown Ge crystals are annealed in air at 450 -500 °C for 4 hrs and then characterized by determination of crystallographic orientation by Laue (back-reflection of X-rays) method, dislocation density studies by etch-pits formation, measuring electrical resistivity by 4-probe technique, conductivity type determination by hot probe method, measurement of hardness on Moh’s scale and optical transmission measurement in IR region. The results obtained are compared to those reported in the literature. The use of this growth station for other materials is suggested.

Full Text:

PDF

References


P.A. Young, Appl. Opt. 10 (1971) 638.

M. Roth, J. Crystal Growth 99 (1990) 670.

E.D. Capron and O.L. Brill, Appl. Opt. 12

(1973) 569.

M. Azoulay and G. Gafni, J. Crystal Growth

(1986) 326.

D.T.J. Hurle, Handbook of Crystal Growth 2a,

Bulk Crystal Growth, North – Holland,

Amsterdam (1994).

C.S. Duncan, R.H. Hopkins and R. Mazelsky,

J. Crystal Growth 11 (1971) 50.

J.L. Amoros, M.J. Buerger and M.C. de

Amoros, The Laue Method, Academic Press,

Inc. New York (1975).

W.R. Runyan, Semiconductor Measurements

and Instrumentation, McGraw-Hill Company,

New York (1975).

R. Webster, Gems: Their Sources,

Description and Identification, fifth ed,

Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford (1994).

E. Brilling, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) 235

(1956) 37.

F. Horne, Optical Production Technology,

Second Ed. Adam Hilger Ltd. Bristol (1983).

S. Musikant, Optical Meterials, An

Introduction to Selection and Application,

Marcel Dekker, Inc. New York (1985).


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.