• I. H. Qureshi Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology (PINSTECH), P.O. Nilore, Islamabad. Pakistan
  • S. Ahmad Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology (PINSTECH), P.O. Nilore, Islamabad. Pakistan


Biofuels for transport have received considerable attention due to rising oil prices and growing concern about greenhouse gas emissions. Biofuels namely ethanol and esters of fatty acids have the potential to displace a substantial amount of petroleum fuel in the next few decades which will help to conserve fossil fuel resources. Life cycle analyses show that biofuels release lesser amount of greenhouse gases and other air pollutants. Thus biofuels are seen as a pragmatic step towards reducing carbon dioxide emission from transport sector. Biofuels are compatible with petroleum and combustion engines can easily operate with 10% ethanol and 20% biodiesel blended fuel with no modification. However higher concentrations require “flex-fuel†engines which automatically adjust fuel injection depending upon fuel mix. Biofuels are derived from renewable biomass and can be produced from a variety of feedstocks. The only limiting factors are the availability of cropland, growth of plants and the climate. Countries with warmer climate can get about five times more biofuel crops from each acre of land than cold climate countries. Genetically modified crops and fast growing trees are being developed to increase the production of energy crops.


“Nuclear Production of Hydrogen,†Technologies and Perspectives for Global Development. International Nuclear Societies Council, Current issues in Nuclear Energy Series (Nov. 2004).

“Key World Energy Statistics,†International Energy Agency, Report (2005).

Pakistan Energy Yearbook 2005. Hydrocarbon Development Institute of Pakistan, Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Resources, Government of Pakistan, Islamabad.

T. Siddique, “Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Global Climate Change,†Mauna Loa Observatory, Hawaii, Report No.GEE-21 (2002).

Electricity and the Environment, Key Issue Paper, Proc. Senior Expert Symposium, IAEA, Vienna, STI/PUB/899 (1991).

University of South Florida and Florida Institute of Oceanography, Annual Report. (Jan. 2001)

J. Kluger, “Global warming: Our feverish planet badly needs a cure.†TIME, (April 9, 2007)

“Biofuels for Transport,†An International Perspective. International Energy Agency, Ed.C. Difiglio, L. Fulton, T. Howes and J. Hardy (2004).

“NGV Commercialization in Pakistan,†Emission Inventory Model. Fuel and Energy Management Group Ltd. Report (1997).

Motor Vehicles on Road in Pakistan,†National Transport Research Cell. Report (2005).

An Overview of Biodiesel and Petroleum Diesel Life Cycles, J. Sheenhan, V. Cambobreco, J. Duffield, M. Graboski and H. Shapouri, U.S. Department of Energy Report No: NREL/Tp-580- 24772 (1998).

A Comprehensive Analysis of Biodiesel Impact on Exhaust Emission, U.S. EPA-No: 420-P-02-001 (2002).

M.S. Briggs and J.Pearson, Univ. of New Hampshire, Report No: NH-03824 (2005)

U.S. Department of Energy, Report. “A Fresh Look at CNG: A Comparison of Alternative Fuel,†Alternative Fuel Vehicle Program, (2001).

S. Theil: “The Next Petroleum: Science and Technology.†News Week, (August 8, 2005).




How to Cite

I. H. Qureshi and S. Ahmad, “AN OVERVIEW OF BIOFUELS”, The Nucleus, vol. 44, no. 1-2, pp. 45–54, Jul. 2020.




Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 > >>